Fundamental Analysis
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Fundamental analysis is a method used in basics of financial analysis to evaluate the intrinsic value of a security, such as a stock or a bond, by examining various financial and economic factors. The goal of fundamental analysis is to determine whether an asset is overvalued or undervalued in the market. Here are the basic principles and components of fundamental analysis:

Financial Statements : Basics of Fundamental Analysis

Fundamental analysis begins with a thorough examination of a company’s financial statements, which include the income statement, balance sheet, and cash flow statement. These documents provide a comprehensive view of the company’s financial health, performance, and profitability.

Earnings and Revenue

Analysts look at a company’s earnings (profits) and revenue (sales) trends over time. They assess whether these figures are growing, stable, or declining. Steady growth in earnings and revenue can be a positive sign.


Various financial ratios are calculated and analyzed to assess a company’s financial health and performance. Common ratios include:

Price-to-Earnings (P/E) Ratio

Compares the stock’s price to its earnings per share, providing insights into valuation.
Price-to-Sales (P/S) Ratio: Compares the stock’s price to its revenue per share.
Debt-to-Equity Ratio: Evaluates the company’s debt level compared to its equity.
Return on Equity (ROE): Measures the company’s profitability in relation to shareholders’ equity.

Balance Sheet Analysis

The balance sheet provides information about a company’s assets, liabilities, and shareholders’ equity. Analysts examine the composition of assets and liabilities to assess the company’s liquidity, solvency, and financial structure.

Management and Leadership : Basics of Fundamental Analysis

Assessing the quality and track record of the company’s management team is essential. Strong leadership and sound decision-making can positively impact a company’s performance.

Industry and Market Analysis

Understanding the industry and market in which the company operates is crucial. Analysts assess the competitive landscape, market trends, and the company’s position within the industry.

Economic Conditions : Basics of Fundamental Analysis

Broader economic factors, such as interest rates, inflation, and overall economic health, can significantly impact a company’s performance. Analysts consider macroeconomic conditions when making their assessments.

Dividends and Cash Flow

For income investors, the company’s dividend history and its ability to generate positive cash flow are important factors. Companies that consistently pay dividends and generate healthy cash flow are often considered stable investments.

Competitive Analysis

Analyzing the company’s competitors and their performance can provide insights into the company’s relative strength or weakness within its industry.


Based on all the collected information, analysts attempt to estimate the intrinsic value of the asset. If the estimated value is higher than the current market price, the asset may be considered undervalued, suggesting a potential buying opportunity.


Fundamental analysis requires a deep understanding of financial and economic principles, as well as access to financial statements and data. Investors and analysts use this method to make informed decisions about buying or selling financial assets, including stocks, bonds, and other securities. It’s important to note that fundamental analysis is often used in conjunction with other methods, such as technical analysis, to make well-rounded investment decisions.

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